The Military and Civilian Applications of Geopolymers




application, geopolymer, 3D printing, portland cement , military


In this article, various geopolymer applications in the context of both existing and potential future military applications are summarized. Geopolymers are a type of alkaline activated concrete binder with many advantageous properties over ordinary Portland cement based materials. Geopolymers are first compared to ordinary Portland cement based materials in regards to their mechanical properties, thermal properties, chemical resistance and CO2 emissions during manufacturing. History of geopolymer applications and research is also discussed. Then, various geopolymer applications are summarized, including their use as a passive fire protection, material for general construction, “ink”for 3D printing. These types of applications are also discussed in the context of existing and potential military applications of geopolymers, including their use by U.S. armed forces and U.S. military research. Superior geopolymer resistance to explosions is also presented.


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The Military and Civilian Applications of Geopolymers. (2023). Advances in Military Technology, 18(2), 259-273.

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