Language Representations Based on C-BML and Their Processing


  • Ľubomír Dedera Armed Forces Academy of Gen. M. R. Štefánik, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovak Republic
  • Marek Benčík Base of Mobile Communications and Information Systems, Ružomberok, Slovak Republic



C-BML, MSDL, Domain-Specific Language, grammar, syntax, semantics, language processor


The paper tries to put together one computer languages view on Battle Management Languages (BMLs) with the current C-BML Phase 1 Standard: We present a case study on creating language representations by means of formal parsable context-free grammars and corresponding language processors in the area of military C2 systems utilizing the standardized C-BML data structures. We point out how techniques and tools previously used in the area of compilers (namely Flex, Bison) are exploitable in the military domain and thus might be helpful in integration of national command and control systems and deployment in multinational environment. We start with an introduction to C-BML principles and data model; next we describe the basis for our (Slovak) language representation followed by its specification in the form of a parsable context-free grammar; next follows the section devoted to the lexical, syntactic, and semantic processing of the language representation with the utilisation of Flex and Bison tools.

Author Biographies

  • Ľubomír Dedera, Armed Forces Academy of Gen. M. R. Štefánik, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovak Republic
    Department of Informatics
  • Marek Benčík, Base of Mobile Communications and Information Systems, Ružomberok, Slovak Republic
    Department of Communication Information System Services


NATO STANAG 2014,Formats for orders and designation of timings, locations and boundaries.North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, 2000.

NATO STANAG 5525,Joint C3 information exchange data model –JC3IEDM.North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, 2007.

BLAIS, C., HIEB,M. R.andGALVIN, K. Coalition Battle Management Lan-guage (C-BML) [Study Group Report].InProceedings of the Fall Simulation In-teroperability Workshop. Orlando: SISO,2005. 13 p.

SCHADE,U. andHIEB,M. R.Formalizing Battle Management Language: AGrammar for Specifying Orders.In Proceedings of the Spring Simulation In-teroperability Workshop.Huntsville: SISO, 2006.13 p.

REIN,K.,SCHADE,U.and HIEB,M. R.Battle Management Language (BML) as an Enabler. In Proceedings ofthe 2009 IEEE International Conference on CommunicationsICC 2009.Dresden: IEEE, 2009.5 p.

HEFFNER, K.,BROOK, A., REUS, N., KHIMECHE, L., MEVASSVIK, M. O.,PULLEN, M., SCHADE, U., SIMONSEN, J.and GOMEZ-VEIGA, R.NATO MSG-048 C-BML Final Report Summary. InProceedings of the 2010Fall Simu-lation Interoperability Workshop.Orlando: SISO,2010.11 p.

SISO-STD-011-2014,Standard for Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) Phase 1. Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, 2014.

SISO-GUIDE-00X-201X, Guide for Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) Phase 1 Version 1.0. Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, 2014.

GALINEC, D., STEINGARTNER, W.and MACANGA, D.Command and Control Information Systems Semantic Interoperability using a Canonical Mes-saging Approach.Central European Journal of Computer Science, 2012, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 316-330.

SISO [on line]. C2SIM PDG/PSG -Command and Control Systems -Simulation Systems Interoperation. [cited 2016-06-16]. Available from: <>

BLAIS, C.Strategies for Application of the Coalition Battle Management Lan-guage (C-BML) with the Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL). Monte-rey: Calhoun, the Naval Postgraduate School Institutional Archive,2012.11 p.

HEFFNER, K.., BLAIS, C. andGUPTON, K..Strategies for Aligment and Convergenceof the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) andthe Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL)[on line]. [cited 2016-06-16].Available from:<>.

REMMERSMANN, T., SCHADE, U., REIN, K.and TIDERKO, A.BML for Communicating with Multi-Robot Systems.In Proceedings of the2015Fall Sim-ulation Interoperability Workshop.Orlando: SISO, 2015.7p.

ÜNAL, Ö.andTOPÇU, O.Modelling Unmanned Surface Vehicle Patrol Missionwith Coalition Battle Management Language(C-BML).The Journal of Defense Modeling and SimulationApplications, Methodology, Technology,2014,vol. 11,no. 3, p. 277-308.

BROOK, A.andMIFSUD, M.Using C-BML in a persistent Coalition C2-Simulation Experimentation Environment.In Proceedings ofthe20thInterna-tional Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Annapolis: International Command and Control Institute,2015.7 p.

KHAYARI, R., LOTZ, H., KROSTA, U., KHIMECHE, L., CUNEO, X.andREMMERSMANN, T.Practical Use of BML and MSDL Standards for Support-ing French German Training.In Proceedings of the 2015 Fall Simulation In-teroperability Workshop.Orlando: SISO, 2015.9 p.

GUSTAVSSON, P. M., WEMMERGARD,J.andJONSSON, F. Object-Orientated Implementation of Grammar Based Battle Management Languages.In Proceedings of the 2012 Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop.Orlando: SISO, 2012.16 p.

DEDERA, Ľ. Domain-Specific Languages for Command and Control Systems.Science&Military,2010, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 40-46.

DEDERA, Ľ. Semantic Interoperability by Means of Computer Languages.InMilitary Communications and Information Technology.A Trusted Cooperation Enabler. Warsaw: Military University of Technology,2012, vol. 1, p. 209-220.

FOWLER, M. Domain-specific languages. Boston:Addison-Wesley Profession-al, 2010.597 p.

DEDERA, Ľ.andBENČÍK, M.An example of a language representation based on C-BML.In Proceedings ofCommunication and Information Technologies: 8thInternational Scientific Conference, Liptovský Mikuláš: Armed Forces Academy, 2015, p. 1-7.

THE FLEX PROJECT[on line] Flex: The Fast Lexical Analyzer. [cited 2014-04-09]. Available from: <>.

GNU.ORG[on line]. Bison -GNU parser generator.[cited 2014-04-08]. Availa-ble from: <>.

GRUNE, D., VAN REEUWIJK, K., BAL, H. E., JACOBS, C. J. H.andLANGENDOEN, K.Modern Compiler Design.New York: Springer, 2012.822p.






Research Paper


How to Cite

Language Representations Based on C-BML and Their Processing. (2016). Advances in Military Technology, 11(2), 159-170.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 33

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.