Impedance Matching Network of Passive Coupler with Coaxial Cable for Airborne Sonar Applications


  • G. Manoj Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisa-tion, Thrikkakara, Kakkanad, Ernakulam, India
  • R Ramesh Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisa-tion, Thrikkakara, Kakkanad, Ernakulam, India
  • Sona O. Kundukulam Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisa-tion, Thrikkakara, Kakkanad, Ernakulam, India



equivalent circuit, impedance matching, Tuning coil, underwater transducer, coupling, airborne sonar


A design methodology is proposed to implement an impedance-matching network in a high-power underwater acoustic transmitting system to minimize power loss through long cables. For this, a Lumped-parameter electrical equivalent circuit model has been developed to analyze the transmitting system along with various couplers and de-couplers introduced for simultaneous transmission of data and DC power along with high-power AC. The effects of these couplers on the end performance of the system have been studied and compensated for by suitably modifying the impedance matching lines (ML). The appropriate impedance matching lines significantly enhance the power by about 300 watts and improve the power factor to 100%.


RATHOD, V.T. A Review of Electric Impedance Matching Techniques for Piezoe-lectric Sensors, Actuators and Transducers. Electronics, 2019, 8(2), 169. DOI 10.3390/electronics8020169.

JIAN, X., Z. LI, Z. HAN, J. XU, P. LIU, Y. LIU, Y. CUI and W. HUANG. The Study of Cable Effect on High-Frequency Ultrasound Transducer Performance. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2018, 18(13), pp. 5265-5271. DOI 10.1109/JSEN.2018.2838142.

HUANG, H and D. PARAMO. Broadband Electrical Impedance Matching for Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducers. IEEE Transactions Ultrasonics Ferroelectric Frequency Control, 2011, 58(12), pp. 2699-2707. DOI 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.2132.

MANOJ, G., E. JACOB and S. KUNDUKULAM. Relay based Coupling Scheme of High Speed Communication Data, High Voltage DC and High Power Pulsed AC for Coaxial Cable. Defence Science Journal, 2018, 68(5), pp. 487-493. DOI 10.14429/dsj.68.11907.

RADKE, H.N. Development of a Self-Tuning Amplifier for Piezoelectric Transduc-er Evaluations [online]. Open Access Master’s Theses, 2013, Paper 80. [viewed 2021-11-09]. Available from:

RAMESH, R. and D.D. EBENEZER. Equivalent Circuit for Broadband Underwater Transducers. IEEE Transactions Ultrasonics Ferroelectric Frequency Control, 2008, 55(9), pp. 2079-2083. DOI 10.1109/TUFFC.899.

XIYOU, C., L. GUANLIN, M. XIANMIN and X. KANG. The Design of Impedance Matching between Long Cable and Ultrasonic Transducer under Seawater. In: IE-CON 2016 - 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Florence: IEEE, 2016, pp. 4576-4581. DOI 10.1109/iecon.2016.7793135.

DECARPIGNY, ´J.N., B. HAMONIC and O.B. WILSON. The Design of Low Fre-quency Underwater Acoustic Projectors: Present Status and Future Trends. IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering, 1991, 16(1), pp. 107-122. DOI 10.1109/48.64890.

GRACIA-RODRIGUEZ, M., J. GARCÍA-ÁLVAREZ, Y. YANEZ, GM.J. ARCIA-HERNANDEZ, J. SALAZAR, A. TURO and J.A. CHÁVEZ. Low Cost Matching Network for Ultrasonic Transducers. Physics Procedia, 2010, 3(1), pp. 1025-1031. DOI 10.1016/j.phpro.2010.01.132.

EBENEZER, D.D. and N. RAVI. An Equivalent Circuit Approach to Determine the In-Situ Radiation Impedance of Underwater Electroacoustic Projectors. Journal of the Acoustical Society of India, 1993, 21(2), pp. 110-115. ISSN 0973-3302.

KUMAR, M.A., R.M. ABRAHAM, R. RAMESH, K.P.B. MOOSAD and D.D. EBENEZER. Design and Development of Flexural Disc Projector for Low Frequen-cy Sonar Applications. In: 2013 Ocean Electronics (SYMPOL). Kochi: IEEE, 2013. DOI 10.1109/sympol.2013.6701946.

JIN, H., S.R. DONG, J.K. LUO and W.I. MILNE. Generalised Butterworth-Van Dyke Equivalent Circuit for Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator. Electronics Let-ter, 2011, 47(7), pp.424-426. DOI 10.1049/el.2011.0343.

RAMESH, R., S.S. PILLAI, P. ABRAHAM and D.D. EBENEZER. Characteristics of Broadband Underwater Transducers Integrated with Tuning Coils and Cables. In: 2009 International Symposium on Ocean Electronics (SYMPOL 2009). Kochi: IEEE, 2009, pp. 133-138. DOI 10.1109/sympol.2009.5664172.

SAFARI, A. and E.K. AKDOGAN. Piezoelectric and Acoustic Materials for Trans-ducer Applications. New York: Springer, 2008. ISBN: 978-0-387-76538-7.

SHI, Q., U. TRÖLTZSCHAND and O. KANOUN. Analysis of the Parameters of a Lossy Coaxial Cable for Cable Fault Location. In: Eighth International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices. Sousse: IEEE, 2011. DOI 10.1109/SSD.2011.5767393.

FANG, W., Y. REN, X. LIU, X. JIAO and C. CHU. Parameter Extraction Method for the Twisted Pair Cable With Rectangular Connectors. PLoS One, 2018, 13(10), e0205072. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0205072.

ZHOU, H., S.H. HUANG and W. LI. Electrical Impedance Matching Between Pie-zoelectric Transducer and Power Amplifier. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2020, 20(23), pp. 14273-14281. DOI 10.1109/JSEN.2020.3008762.

GOMEZ, F.R. Design of Impedance Matching Networks for RF Applications. Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2018, 6(4). DOI 10.24203/ajet.v6i4.5450.

WANG, B., Z. CAO and F. SONG. Design and Evaluation of a T-Shaped Adaptive Impedance Matching System for Vehicular Power Line Communication. IEEE Ac-cess, 2020, 8, pp. 73843-73854. DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2988299.

DENG, Y., G. ZHANG and X. ZHANG. A Method to Depress the Transmitting Voltage Response Fluctuation of a Double Excitation Piezoelectric Transducer. Applied Acoustics, 2020, 158, 107066. DOI 10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.107066.

SHERMAN, C.H. and J.L. BUTLER. Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound. New York: Springer, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4419-2198-7.

BOBBER, R.J. Underwater Electroacoustic Measurements. Baileys Harbor: Penin-sula Pub, 1990. ISBN 978-0-932146-19-8.






Research Paper


How to Cite

Impedance Matching Network of Passive Coupler with Coaxial Cable for Airborne Sonar Applications. (2023). Advances in Military Technology, 18(1), 49-66.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 25

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.