Comparative Analysis of NATO Requirements for Laboratory Identification of Chemical Agents and Military Technical Means for Its Implementation
T. Rozsypal and R. Zahradníček
Deployable chemical laboratories are considered a highly specific part of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic, intended for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defence in operations. Their professional activity is determined by a number of scientific and technical requirements, which are formulated by standards for sample identification. To achieve the required degree of credibility, it is particularly important to have specific technical capacities. This instrumentation is crucial for the implementation of laboratory analyzes. The article describes the state of chemical laboratories of the Chemical Corps in the context of standardized requirements and discusses some points of selected Alliance agreements which the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic have signed.
Keywords: analysis, chemical warfare agent, chemical corps, chemical support, identification, deployable laboratory.
- Vševojsk-2-14. Combat Use of Chemical Troops (in Czech). Prague: Ministry of Defence, 2012.
- Bi-SC Capability Codes and Capability Statements [online], 2016. [viewed 2020-09-09]. Available from: https://fr.scribd.com/document/382349178/Capability-Codes-and-Capability-Statements-2016-Bi-sc-Nu0083
- NATO-STANAG 4632. Deployable NBC Analytical Laboratory. Brussels: NATO Standardization Agency, 2005.
- AEP-66, Edition A. NATO Handbook for Sampling and Identification of Biologi-cal, Chemical and Radiological Agents (SIBCRA). Brussels: NATO Standardiza-tion Office, 2015.
- ATP-3.8.1 Volume III. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defence Standards for Education, Training and Evaluation. Brussels: NATO Standardiza-tion Agency, 2011.
- VANNINEN, P. Recommended Operating Procedures for Analysis in the Verifica-tion of Chemical Disarmament. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2017. ISBN 978-951-51-3916-0.
- HAAS, R. Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents: Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Chlorovinylarsines (Lewisite) and their Metabolites by Derivatization with Thiols. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1998, 5(1), pp. 2-3. DOI 10.1007/BF02986365.
- TERZIC, O., H. GREGG and P. de VOOGT. Identification of Chemicals Relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention Using the Novel Sample-Preparation Meth-ods and Strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2015, 65, pp. 151-166. DOI 10.1016/j.trac.2014.10.012.
- Preparation of Methodological Procedures and Standard Procedures for Work in Laboratory AL-3 “AL-3MET” (in Czech). Brno: Military Research Institute, 2020.
- BOTHE, M. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction [online]. Ge-neva: Audiovisual Library of International Law, 1992. [viewed 2020-10-01]. Available from: https://legal.un.org/avl/ha/cpdpsucw/cpdpsucw.html
- VORCE, S.P., J.H. SKLEROV and K.S. KALASINSKY. Assessment of the Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometer for Routine Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Drugs of Abuse Extracted from Urine. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 2000, 24(7), pp. 595-601. DOI 10.1093/jat/24.7.595.
- ETTRE, L.S. Nomenclature for Chromatography (IUPAC Recommendations 1993). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2009, 65(4), pp. 819-872. DOI 10.1351/pac199365040819.
A. M. Solomon, M. B. Asrat and S. Ramasamy
This article deals with a firing control system which has been developed for Anti-aircraft gun prototype by integrating video processor with a helmet-mounted cueing system. The system consists of a camera and an inertial measuring unit, which continuously reports the gunner’s head position for the microcontroller. The system is deployed on a prototype hardware and tested using experimentation by varying the target range and the controller parameters. The evaluation results show an overall system response of 1.75 s, and approximately 82 % of accuracy of detection. Moreover, the deployed stepper motors have given 95 % of accuracy in input waveform tracking, while the settling time of 0.052 s is found for a correction deviation of 100°.
Keywords: anti-aircraft gun, firing control, helmet cueing, image processing, PID.
- CARTER, G.L. Gun Control in the United States: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85-109760-9.
- SINGH, H., S.S. SAINI, N. KUMAR and V. KARAR. Performance Comparison: Optical and Magnetic Head Tracking. International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research, 2013, 2(3), pp. 27-32. ISSN 2319-4413.
- RASH, C.E. (ed.). Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensation, Perception and Cognitive Issues. Fort Rucker: U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, 2009. ISBN 978-0-61-528375-3.
- KORAN, F., A. KNIZEK and M. BURIAN. Present Vehicle Line No.6: Gaz-66 Variants in Detail. Wings & Wheels Publications, 2002. ISBN 978-8-08-641620-5.
- KUCUK, S. and Z. BINGUL. Robot Kinematics: Forward and Inverse Kinematics. In: CUBERO, S. ed. Industrial Robotics: Theory, Modelling and Control. Augs-burg: Pro Literatur Verlag, 2006, pp. 117-148. ISBN 3-86611-285-8.
- RASH, C.E., W.E. McLEAN, J.C. MORA, M.H. LEDFORD and B.T. MOZO. De-sign Issues for Helmet-Mounted Display Systems for Rotary-Wing Aviation [online]. Defense Technical Information Center, 1998. [viewed 2019-12-16]. Available from: https://www.usaarl.army.mil/TechReports/98-32.PDF
- IQBAL, J., A. UL HAQ and S. WALI. Moving Target Detection and Tracking. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2015. ISBN 978-3-659-69832-3.
- BALAJI, S.R. and S. KARTHIKEYAN. A Survey on Moving Object Tracking Using Image Processing. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelli-gent Systems and Control (ISCO). Coimbatore: IEEE, 2017, pp. 469-474. DOI 10.1109/ISCO.2017.7856037.
- PATHAN, I. and C. CHAUHAN. A Survey on Moving Object Detection and Track-ing Methods. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Tech-nologies, 2015, 6(6), pp. 5212-5215. ISSN 0975-9646.
- BALA, R. and K.M. BRAUN. Color-to-Grayscale Conversion to Maintain Dis-criminability. In: Proceedings of the SPIE 5293, Color Imaging IX: Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications. San Jose, 2003. DOI 10.1117/12.532192.
- SARAVANAN, C. Color Image to Grayscale Image Conversion. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications. Bali Island: IEEE, 2010, pp. 196-199. DOI 10.1109/ICCEA.2010.192.
- ZHANG, Y, X. WANG and B. QU. Three-Frame Difference Algorithm Research Based on Mathematical Morphology. Procedia Engineering, 2012, 29, pp. 2705-2709. DOI 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.376.
- HUSSAIN, Z., A. NAAZ and N. UDDIN. Moving Object Detection Based on Back-ground Subtraction and Frame Differencing Technique. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 2016, 5(5), pp. 817-819. DOI 10.17148/IJARCCE.2016.55200.
- PARIDA, S., W.P. WACHS and M.E. CABRERA. Dynamic Surgical Tool Tracking and Delivery System Using Baxter Robot. In: Proceedings of the Summer Under-graduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium. West Lafayette, 2014, paper 51.
- CHAUHAN, B.S., M. SINGH, V.K. SHARMA and P.C. PANDEY. Auto-Video Tracking System: Performance Evaluation. Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4), p. 565-572. DOI 10.14429/dsj.58.1678.
- MINGQIANG, Y., K. KIDIYO, and R. JOSEPH. A Survey of Shape Feature Extrac-tion Techniques. In: YIN, P.-Y. ed. Pattern Recognition Techniques, Technology and Applications. InTech, 2008, pp. 43-90. ISBN 978-953-7619-24-4.
- RAHMAT, M.S., K. HUDHA, A.M. IDRIS and N.H. AMER. Sliding Mode Control of Target Tracking System for Two Degrees of Freedom Gun Turret Model. Ad-vances in Military Technology, 2016, 11(1), pp. 13-28. DOI 10.3849/aimt.01087.
- KUSWADI, S., N.M. TAMARA and H.W. DWI NUGROHO. Gun Turret Automatic Weapon Control System Design and Realization. In: Proceeding of the 2016 In-ternational Symposium on Electronics and Smart Devices (ISESD). Bandung: IEEE, 2016. DOI 10.1109/ISESD.2016.7886687.
- MUSLIM, M.A., D. MINGGU, J. SAPUTRA and R.N. HASANAH. Comparison Analysis between Fuzzy and Fuzzified-Pid Methods on Gun-Barrel Motion Con-trol. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2015, 10(20), pp. 9765-9771. ISSN 1819-6608.
- SIQQI, M.S., D.S. PURNOMO and I.A. SULISTIJONO. Coil-gun Turret Control System by Using Digital Compass on Helmet. EEPIS Final Project [online]. [viewed 2019-11-02]. Available from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/12344379.pdf
- SAPUTRA, J., R.N. HASANAH and M.A. MUSLIM. Target Tracking of the S-60 Single-Barrel 57mm Anti-Aircraft Gun System Using Hybrid Control Method. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2015, 10(19) pp. 9071-9077. ISSN 1819-6608.
M. Sedláček and F. Dohnal
The paper deals with the proposal of the optimization of values at depths of wet gaps in order to make the selection of the area for wet gap crossing, which is planned in the Task Force staff, more effective. The main contribution of the article is a comparison of depth values according to the data obtained from the specific period (year 2019), further from the data of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and also from the data of the digital landscape model DMU25. At present, depth values are not relevant in DMU25. Another contribution of the article is the definition of depth values to the limit values of selected vehicles in the Army of the Czech Republic and their possibilities of fording, as well as the proposal of updating and optimization depth values for the developed application software.
Keywords: depth of wet gap, digital landscape model, engineer support, stream-gauging station.
- HOSLER, D.J. Gap-Crossing Operations: Medieval and Modern. Military Review [online]. March-April 2020. [viewed 2020-08-30]. Available from: https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Journals/Military-Review/English-Edition-Archives/March-April-2020/Hosler-Gap-Crossing/
- GRAU, W.L. Snorkeling Russian Tanks Across Rivers. Armor [online]. 2019. [viewed 2020-07-27]. Available from: https://www.benning.army.mil/armor/earmor/content/issues/2019/Fall/4Grau19.pdf
- Crossing the Gap Safely: Vehicle Safety [online]. July 2019. [viewed 2020-07-15]. Available from: https://www.army.mil/article/224642/crossing_the_gap_safely_vehicle_safety
- ROLENEC, O., K. ŠILINGER, T. PALASIEWICZ and P. ŽIŽKA. Supporting the Decision-Making Process in the Planning and Controlling of Engineer Task Teams to Support Mobility in a Combat Operation. International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 2019, 13, pp. 33-40. ISSN 2074-1316.
- LAUERMANN, L. and M. RYBANSKÝ. Military Geography (in Czech). Prague: Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic, 2002. ISBN 80-238-9274-6.
- CALDWELL, D.R., J. EHLEN and R.S. HARMON. Studies in Military Geography and Geology. Boston: Springer, 2004. ISBN 978-1-4020-3105-2.
- BRINI?UK, N.I?U, E˙.L. KORSHUNOV and A.A. MIKHAI˘LOV. Military Geography and Military Statistics: History and Present (in Russian). Sankt-Peterburg: Dmitrii˘ Bulanin, 2018. ISBN 978-5-86007879-6.
- AAP-6. NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions. NATO Standardization Office, 2019.
- Generals of Three Nato Countries Train the Forced Crossing of the Water Barrier in Litoměřice (in Czech) [online]. [viewed 2020-08-31]. Available from: http://www.acr.army.cz/scripts/detail.php?id=136818&tmplid=527
- RYBANSKÝ, M., M. HUBÁČEK, P. ZERZÁN, F. DOHNAL and M. BUREŠ. Anal-ysis of the Impact of Terrain Surface, Soils, Hydrology and Vegetation on the Cross-Country Movement (in Czech) [Final Report]. Brno: University of Defence in Brno, 2017.
- Catalog of Topographic Objects (in Czech). Military Topographic Institute in Do-bruška, 2007.
- Hydrological Balance of Water Quantity and Quality in the Czech Republic (in Czech) [online]. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. [viewed: 2020-4-2]. Availa-ble from: http://voda.chmi.cz/opzv/bilance/bilance.htm
- Hydrological Situation (in Czech) [online]. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. [viewed: 2020-03-11]. Available from: http://portal.chmi.cz/aktualni-situace/hydrologicka-situace/hydrologicka-situace
- Fording and Floating of Military Vehicles. General Requirements (in Czech). Defence Standardisation, Codification, and Government Quality Assurance Au-thority. Prague, 2017. ČOS 230501.
- CIBULOVÁ, K., O. ROLENEC and V. GARBA. A Selection of Mobility Support Engineering Devices of NATO Armies Usable in the Czech Armed Forces Combat Operations. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Military Technol-ogies. Brno: IEEE, 2019. DOI 10.1109/MILTECHS.2019.8870016.
- Technology and Armament (in Czech) [online] [viewed: 2020-10-23]. Available from: http://www.acr.army.cz/technika/default.htm
- Tactical and Technical Requirements for a New Infantry Fighting Vehicle and its Modifications (in Czech). Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic, 2018. Attachment no. 1.
- RYBANSKÝ, M. and F. DOHNAL. The Possibilities of Determination of Water-course Passability by Military Vehicles Using Geographical Data (in Czech). In: Proceedings of the 23rd Cartographic Conference. Prague: Czech Technical University in Prague, 2019, pp. 49-49. ISBN 978-80-01-06639-3.
- DOHNAL, F., M. RYBANSKÝ and M. HUBÁČEK. Water Regime of Rivers and Its Impact on Cross-Country Mobility. In: Proceedings of the 19th International & 14th European-African Regional Conference of the International Society for Ter-rain-Vehicle Systems. Budapest: Szent Istvan University, 2017, pp. 1-2. ISBN 978-963-269-669-0.
- DOHNAL, F., M. RYBANSKÝ and K. ŠIMKOVÁ. Water Regime and Prediction of Its Impact on River Crossing in Different Types of Z